Kerry has promised more writing on this and other topics surrounding World War II. I look forward to the discussion that naturally follows, as our readers are well-versed on this topic as well.
The Battle of the Atlantic (By Kerry Anderson
After the fall of France, The Kriegsmarine now had access to the French ports. This was advantageous for a number of reasons.
- Safer access without having to run the gauntlet of the English Channel.
- Convenience to the Atlantic shipping lanes.
- Easier to repair and supply their naval vessels.
However, the policy of raiding and submarine warfare was a controversial one. Erich Raeder, a veteran of the First World War, was a detractor, believing it to be a flawed strategy, which of course it was. In 1939 he approved a change in the German shipbuilding schedule, abandoning capital ships for submarines. In conflict with his earlier beliefs. The problems with such a strategy were as follows.
- Any ” Happy Times”, would most likely be short-lived. Once convoying began, it would turn into a war of attrition, one the Kriegsmarine was bound to lose.
- The vessels would have to operate in the North Atlantic, giving England the chance of deploying her superior naval assets to the full advantage.
- The German ships would have to operate without land based air cover, a not insignificant disadvantage. They would also have to operate alone, making any engagement far more risky.
- They would also be trading their valuable capital ships for merchant tonnage. Playing into the hands of the British.
But there was an even possibly better reason, which seems to have eluded historians. Not to say that all of the actions of the Graf Spee escaped scrutiny. It is the sum of these events which appear very suspicious under closer examination.
The Graf Spee was one of three ” Pocket Battleships”, basically a heavier gun placed on a heavy cruiser frame. The logic was that it could out-shoot any vessel that had the speed to catch it. While not as effective as the 15″ guns of the Bismark and Tirpitz, they could out-range any heavy cruiser of the day. Their best technological asset was however, the reloading speed, able to fire 3.5 rounds per minute. They also had gunnery radar, making them a formidable opponent by any standard.
Before the invasion of Poland, The Graf Spee was ordered to sea off the Cape Verde Islands to await further instructions. After England declared war on Germany, Hitler called a “Time Out”, giving England a little over 3 weeks time before giving the Graf Spee authorization to proceed on the 26th of September. Even though it was already online and ready to begin operations, she was also ordered to abide strictly by ” Prize Rules “, requiring her to stop and search ships before sinking them, and giving the seamen the ability to safely evacuate. She was also ordered to decline any engagement even with inferior forces, as any real damage could only be repaired in Germany.
The standard procedure at the time, was that any merchant vessel would not use the S.O.S. signal, but would use a 3 letter code 3 times to identify the attack. R, for surface vessel, S, for submarine, and A, for air attack. So a vessel attacked by the Graf Spee would signal…RRR-RRR-RRR, ships location, ships name, and any other pertinent information. The challenge signal was W.B.A., this meant a series of commands. Stop ship, do not use radio, do not lower lifeboats, and do not scuttle. Any failure to obey would result in immediate action, releasing the raider from any responsibility from firing on them. In all of the engagements it appears the Graf Spee does not use the challenge signal.
On Sept 30, Graf Spee encountered the first of nine merchant vessels that would be sunk on her voyage. The Clement, would have time to get off the RRR signal though. This makes little sense as she should have been spotted first by the Graf Spee. Captain Langsdorff took the captain and 1st engineer prisoner and put the rest of the crew into life boats. Why he did not use one of his prize crews to take over the vessel is unclear. This was their purpose after all.
His next action is even harder to understand, he radioed Permabucco and informed the British of the location of the crew in the lifeboats. Giving his position away (In case they didn’t get the message the first time?). He then proceeded to use up 30 rounds from his 11 and 6 inch guns to sink her, along with two torpedoes. This was completely unnecessary and makes little sense. It could have been scuttled by opening the seacocks or just placing a few charges on board. Or, if he was in a hurry, a single torpedo should have sufficed. It was, dead in the water after all.
This same story would be repeated on the other 8 vessels she would encounter, really inexcusable. In the meantime, England would sortie 30 vessels to locate and sink the Graf Spee, Including 4 carriers and 2 battleships. They would divide into 8 or 9 groups. So, the chase was on like donkey kong.
The Graf Spee and Langsdorff would then head into the Indian Ocean, her last victim being the Streonshalh. Secret documents were captured which had the location of England’s convoys in the area off the coast of South America. Captain Langsdorff’s next move is even harder to explain. He heads to the area off of Montevideo, good pickins, no doubt, but also a good chance of meeting British warships which he was ordered to avoid. He also had another good reason to call it a good voyage and return to Germany. The Graf Spee had now 30,000 nautical miles on the engines and was losing speed and blowing white and orange smoke. She was overdue for a rebuild.
On Dec 13, his lookouts spotted the masts of the British cruiser Exeter and 2 other vessels. He then does the unthinkable, instead of backing off, he charges full speed ahead at them. Giving up his advantage in range and risking his ship not only to the cruiser’s guns but putting himself in range of the torpedoes. To make a long story short, the British cruisers were heavily damaged but so was the Graf Spee. Captain Langsdorf also failed to sink them even though he could have easily done so.
He then headed for Montevideo, a stupid move as even though all of the South American countries were nominally neutral, Uruguay was highly inclined towards Britain. Puerto Belgrano was a much better choice and he had the ability to make it there. He then ended up scuttling it in shallow water in Montevideo in direct violation of his orders. Allowing the British to examine his radar system as it was above water in the shallow channel. He then, after burying his deceased crew members was said to have committed suicide.
Although I cannot confirm it, there is supposedly a book called la Vrai Vie d’ Eva Peron. The author, Silvain Reiner, claims that Hans Langsdorff faked his death for the following reasons.
- There was no doctor present, only a crewman ” Fisher ” and the German naval attache, Dietrich Niebuhr. (Photo exists of Dietrich with Langsdorff on the G.S. with his hand in vest. Sigh.)
- British officers after the war visited Langsdorff’s grave in Gorlow, East Prussia. The casket was said to be empty.
- Juan Peron had him as his guest (permanent?) in Calle Posada
Pictures of Langsdorf at the funeral of his crewmen killed during the Battle of the River Plate show him not giving the Nazi salute. His crewmen, no salute at all. (Weird.)
The Battle of the Atlantic was only just beginning, but this was certainly not an auspicious start. The events of 1941 will be even more suspect. But we will hit on them later as Hitler had quite a few more mistakes to make on not only his naval policy but the Blitz, and his next moves concerning the future of armored warfare.
I may have to retract my claim that we can’t prove the war was managed. This looks really bad. More to come…
34 thoughts on “Guest writer: The Battle of the Atlantic”
Very interesting take-down of this first naval battle of WWII.
Reading about the Graf Spee, that on October 6th (some sites say 5th) captured the Newton Beach from the British and housed prisoners on that ship, it is said that on October 8th, the Spee sank the Newton Beach and moved the prisoners onto the Spee. The prisoners were later brought aboard the Altmark of which is said:
“Altmark was a floating base whose supplies were vital to the panzerschiffe’s continued success. For that reason, Dau exercised the utmost caution, even going so far as to disguise the tanker’s true identity. The Altmark had been painted light yellow from stem to stern, and large letters proclaimed the ship to be the Sogne whose home port was Oslo.”
if you have a supply vessel vital for your operation and do everything to disguise its true nature, why would you load it full with 150+ and later more prisoners (and only 143 crew) from captured ships? Makes no sense.
More ridiculous storytelling can be found on that page:
“The Germans planned the prisoners’ day with typical Teutonic thoroughness. At 7 am the captives would be turned out and led to the wash “flat,” after which they had their meager breakfast. From 8:30 to 9:15, they would be allowed up on the open deck for some coveted fresh air. Filling their lungs with the fresh sea air, so different from the dank stale holds, they would reluctantly go below when the guards told them the time was up. At 5:30 in the afternoon they were allowed some tea, and then lights out at 9 pm.
The prisoners agreed that most of the Germans, though not all, were decent enough. That favorable assessment did not include Captain Dau, however. Rules were strict, and any infractions might mean solitary confinement on a diet of bread and water. Lieutenant Otto Schmidt was the officer in charge of the prisoners, and in consequence they got to know him well. He spoke English, and his youthful looks quickly caused the British to dub him “babyface.” He was friendly enough—within limits. Altmark’s physician, Dr. Tyrolt, gave them adequate enough care, and at times could be sympathetic to their plight. Ironic, in that Tyrolt was actually a member of the Nazi party.”
Wiki Battle of the River Plate:
“Captain Langsdorff committed suicide by gunshot on 19 December. [on the wiki page of Langsdorff a death date of December 20 is mentioned, after writing his suicide letter on December 19]”
Though none of the wiki pages about the Battle, Spee or Langsdorff mentions it, in the given link is said:
“The German crew was interned for the duration, and the lucky 27 British captives released.”
Those were the prisoners taken by the Spee alone, without the Altmark that apparently lost her status as “vital supply ship, treated with utmost caution”… Sure!
I added some of your points and reference to your blog post here, will do more later:
Thanks Gaia! Yes, the Germans were no slouches when it came to flying different colors and otherwise disguising their merchant ships. The Altmark did a pretty good job it would seem. I just find myself wondering why they did not use the prize crews for their intended purpose. 36 or so crewmen at risk for a loaded ship seems like a decent risk to me. No more risk than the original crew was taking. And since Germany only had a few hundred total, why not send those bales of Argentine grain and beef back home, or at least to Italy? I’m guessin a good English speaking signalman could fool the Brits at Gibralter, after that they could have run up the Greek flag or something before switching to German outside of Naples. Langsdorff did also transfer his extra paint to the Altmark, so I guess this prevented him from painting a bright red bullseye on the bridge of the A.G.S. Sorry, just kidding here but I am getting a bit ticked at this Captain’s actions.
You are so right, “bull’s eye” so to say. The “battle” you described was bound to fail, from the start on. And that is the first in a long line of those “battles”. I am looking forward to your analysis of “Stalingrad”, “Dunkirk” and other obvious “failures”. For the past 2 years I have been debating pro-Nazi idiots who really beLIEve Dolfy Hitler/Hiller/Hüttler/Schicklgruber was some kind of hero who fought off Ze Banksters, while in reality acting (see Tyrone’s analysis on Dolfy) in favor of exactly their (the Zionists) agenda all along…
Essentially Nahum Sokolow said it all right:
I agree with the thrust of your argument, but as far as I have been able to determine, that quote from Herzl is mostly made up. He probably agreed with the sentiment, but it’s a “fake quote.”
Thanks! But we have a ways to go before Stalingrad. After I get done bashing Hitler’s decisions following the Blitz we will move on to ” Disaster in the Desert” I’m sure that will be a lot of fun. We will take a closer look at N. Africa and the Italians, Africa Corps, and 8th Army. Hoo Boy, This one might take several pieces. Luckily for us, there are hundreds of individual accounts as this one struck a chord with so many participants. PS…As many have noted, the Germans should have swept Gibraltor, Malta, and Cairo and sealed off the area. We’ll get there soon enough.
Thanks Josh for the correction, maybe for sake of separating the chaff from the wheat, Mark can you remove the Herzl picture? Josh, your blog and work were plugged in today’s great Waco audiochat done by Mark at Fakeologist, as was POM in general and Tyrone’s outstanding JFK analysis.
Kerry, I like your writing style a lot, very easy to follow. So look forward to those pieces, keep ‘m coming. In the meantime, when I have time, I will take a look at some “minor” “mistakes” and related events as they form more or less blueprints for bigger events (like SS Ironic for Titanic and the North Hollywood shootout that I did last Sunday in the Fakeologist chat which is not a minor one by any means, but little known to many people and just so utterly ridiculous):
Here’s an amusing article from the Smithsonian, which pulls all its punches by the end. But as a limited hangout, it has some value in understanding the stagecraft of “war”.
People here already know that the elites have these funny spook islands where famous people are “imprisoned” or exiled. Pontine Islands were used for this purpose since the ancient times. The island Ventotene has a nice WW2 story https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventotene . The island is also associated to the “Ventotene Manifesto”.
The navies and these special islands are probably very important for controlling this world. In peace times some of these islands are tax havens like Cayman (relatively big island). I wonder if they have additional islands that are not labeled in any civilian map. Also I assume that a lot of funny business happened in the Pacific islands during WW2. These islands are the best places to make their war theater.
Two notorious islands used to fake-imprison a high-profile actor: Elba, St. Helena.
– Robben Island, South Africa (Mandela)
– Devil’s Island, French Guyana (Albert Dreyfus)
– Asinara, Italy (Brigate Rosse)
– Saint-Marguerite, France (“The Man in the Iron Mask”)
– Alcatraz (Al Capone)
And Airstrip One
A “Doctor” Mudd, one of the cast members of the Lincoln fraud, was sequestered in the Dry Tortugas off the Florida keys. Despite the admitted history, I imagine that little area has seen its share of prisoners/zombies pass through over the years.
Scorpios – JFK, JFK Jr?
Rfk too possiblt.
Jackie and Ari allegedly owned a horse farm in New Jersey. Susan Atkins and Sharon Tate have horse farms in their narratives. Jim Morrison supposedly had connections to a horse farm in Oregon. Trend??? Not a bad place to get some from fresh air and wide open spaces if remote islands aren’t your bag.
Reinhard Heydrich (“the architect behind the Holocaust Story”) had a summer home at the same island fecking Jimi Hendrix held his last concert…
I remember reading a biography of Heydrich in which he smashed a mirror because he couldn’t stand his Jewishness being reflected back at him. Hendrix, Heydrich, similar surnames, is the former a slurring of the latter?
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Jimi Hendrix = “jinni” genie hex 9 (ix)
“I used to live in A room full of mirrors
Well I take my spirit and I smash my mirrors
Broken glass was all in my brain
Cuttin’ screamin’ crying in my head”
MK Ultra multiple personality
Very nice piece. You’ll have thought the Germans would have learned the first time they provoked the British by trying to build a Navy prior to WWI. Sounds like the same script. Otto von Bismarck seemed the smartest on both/all sides of the family.
And for fun,
If Tom Petty had a Luv child with Francesca degli Stati (?)/Battista Sforza, see painting below,
The nose knows.
Well, maybe Miles Mathis also.
Battista Sforza was married to Federico da Montefeltro which sounds Italian for Rockefeller.
(Miscellaneous .: In the painting on the woman’s sleeve are three palms with two feathers like Heydrich’s Brigadier’s General SS insignia except his are oak leaves which might represent the Cosimo de Medici family. Since the SS had to paid for their uniforms it seems like they started to make up their own insignia.)
Of course, the family doesn’t talk about the two other brothers,
Why do the Germans like the letter H? Was Hermann (Steppenwolf Harry Haller) Hesse writing their script character names?
HHhH Heydrich, etc..
Jimi Hendrix = “jinni” genie hex 9 (ix) or (jimi as IMI) 1001Radix=9 hex=6,
“Now if 6 turned out to be 9,
I don’t mind, I don’t mind,
Alright, if all the hippies cut off all their hair,
I don’t care, I don’t care.
Words to live by.
Sorry about the non-working links, copy and paste if you want to.
It’s sort of humorous.
I’m still relatively new to this site, so please forgive me if this question comes across as a foolish one:
What is the general sentiment on this blog towards the notion that ‘war’ is fake?
To take ‘World War II’ for a pertinent example, there are many of us out there who have come to the conclusion that the ‘V2 rockets’ were/are an obvious hoax. The man supposedly in charge of the V2 program, one ‘Wernher von Braun’, is also credited as the man behind the Apollo missions to the moon.
If that is not a red flag, I’ve never seen one.
Lately there has been somewhat of a heated discussion taking place over at Fakeologist on this exact topic. For me personally, it has been an uplifting revelation to realise that war is fake, that the millions of people I was indoctrinated into mourning every year for a ‘minute of silence’ (how Orwellian) probably never existed, let alone died.
At the same time, I am cognizant of the fact that the mere notion that war is fake might be confronting and even offensive to some readers, so I do not plan to debate the matter here (I’ll save that for Fakeologist). I am however curious to find out what the general sentiment is on this blog.
Jon le Bon … this comment went to moderation, and I do not know the reason. When that happens, just be patient, as it will appear. You are not in any way restricted.
I believe that the numbers for dead people are exaggerated (by what factor I don’t know). Right now I believe that the war was orchestrated by the Family members. The so called spies were probably Family members that brought info from one side to the other side in order to coordinate the “war”. I don’t believe they put in danger Family members, so the destruction was handled very carefully. I also assume they evacuated people. Mathis also pointed out that important buildings and bridges were not destroyed (the example of London in WW2). Actually he also pointed out the funny situation in WW1 when no major western city suffered much.
The wars were social engineering. The wars probably contributed to the urbanization of the countries. I wonder if some destruction were directed towards some rural areas in order to bring people to the cities after the war. Also the funds from the Marshal Plan and similar plans were probably spent only on urban areas ( see the guy that Mathis doesn’t like https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XbE8cjqRJ8c). The military forces also played an important role in racial integration (immediately after ww2). Europeans moved to Central Asia (Kazakhstan) is probably connected to Eurasianism.
We don’t need sexy weapons like V2 rockets or the Paris Gun to have deaths. According to official sources 20% of soldiers die from causes such as friendly fire, suicide, diseases etc. Of course I believe that the suicides of high ranking people to be bullshit.
I had a teacher who said he was shot during the 1989 revolution in Romania. Other than this, I don’t know any other person connected to something that can be considered very violent (war violence, shooting by a random thug, rape etc). Nonetheless, I don’t believe this teacher was a fake. This is a personal experience that goes against the idea that war is 100% without shooting towards a real person.
Even if the war was 100% fake the real crime will be the favelization of the white countries and the loss of liberty due to this favelization . What happens to the white countries are the direct result of the WW2 propaganda.
Wernher Von Braun is also listed on Famouskin.com as being related to European royalty (Mainly French and British), Henry II for example who just so happens to be related to John Brown, Winston Churchill, Charles Darwin, John Hancock, General Robert E Lee, Fletcher Christian, George Washington, Charlemagne, Caleb Brewster, Helen Keller, Bette Davis, Theodor Roosevelt, Humphrey Bogart, Ralph W Emerson, and even authoress Harper Lee.
My father was a signals operator [morse code] in WW2. He went to Normandy on D day and followed the fighting front all the way to Luneberg Heath where the Armistice was signed. Taking in, on the way both, Hamburg [which was flattened by the “Allies”] and Belsen concentration camp [which was one of the few camps to be “liberated” in the West]. He saw the war from close up without actually fighting himself.
He handled the mental trauma very well, he was a tough old bastard, much tougher than the current generations that’s for sure. He was born in 1922, comfortable middle class, and signed up for the war in 1939 when he was 17. His mother went and told the recruiting office that he was only 17, and they made him wait until he was 18. He spent the next 5 years at war, being demobbed in 1946, so 6 years in all. He saw a lot. He told me that it was the best education that he could have ever had. He was an old school “your word is your bond” type. Lying for him was unthinkable, a cardinal sin. He was not a bullshitter, far from it, the opposite.
He was certain that there were plenty of dead people, both soldiers and civi’s. He knew some dead soldiers personally. He saw lots of dead bodies. He said that Hamburg “smelt of death”, that the stench of all the dead civilian bodies was overpowering and nauseating. He said that there was nothing left of Hamburg and the all bodies were trapped in all the rubble and were decomposing. He said that Hamburg was a war crime by his own side.
He was at Belsen very early on, days after it was discovered. He saw the piles of bodies. He said that Belsen was a war crime by the other side.
I’m sure that there were plenty of deaths in WW2 but I’ve no idea how many. This is always true surely, given the total media control. But to say that there were none is simply ridiculous and it is offensive to those earlier generations who suffered their losses. There were lots of dead people, particularly in WW1. Everybody in this country knew of dead people in WW1, everybody. The war memorials of Britain cannot lie, as I’ve explained here before.
I have picked up two new words, “favelization,” having something to due with Brazilian slums, and “demobbed”, short for demobilized. Not bad for five minutes reading.
My sense is that killing in war is rarely hand-to-hand, as people are not natural born killers. I think it was General Marshall who surveyed rifle fire on the Pacific front and found that a huge percentage (40?) of it was deliberately aimed over the heads of the enemy.
However, killing when we don’t see the victims is another story – cannon fire, and aerial bombing. Pilots and bombardiers go back to their bases not having personally witnessed the carnage they produced. There were reports of pilots returning to carriers from the Turkey Shoot in the First Gulf War sexually aroused, reported as being in a patriotic state by our sniveling news media. That could explain Hamburg and Belsen.
Well I very much doubt that the bomber crews that flattened Hamburg, and many other German cities, came back sexually aroused. The planes were unheated and notoriously freezing, flying at a great height where it is very very cold. Hence all the sheepskin coats and long johns underpants.
But your main point is correct. The bombers flew very high to avoid all the flak. They killed from a great height and did not ever see their victims. But victims their certainly were, according to my old man at least.
Btw the numbers of dead bomber crews alone are disproof of the “no war dead” theory. They were real people, with real families and real loved ones. They died in their thousands too. They left tens of thousands of direct family to suffer their loss. Unless of course they were all relocated and given new identities by the MI6? Do me a favour…….
Also the theory that the cities were emptied prior to destruction is a non starter. Emptied to where? There was a war on, accommodation was in short supply. Where did they all move to? The sheer number of German cities destroyed surely disproves that theory.
Belsen bodies were mainly due to typhus, Zyklon B would have saved them.
Please do not think that my 2 earlier comments are in any way disparaging about this post, which is excellent and thought provoking.
I was simply responding to the suggestion that war is 100% fake. It is not, or it certainly wasn’t in the 20th century. Managed, very likely. Lots and lots of lies, for certain. But 100% fake, no way.
The “Battle of the River Plate” is vivid to me because I clearly remember the 1956 movie of that name that told the official story. I forget exactly when I watched it, early ’60’s would be my best guess, I cannot believe that a six year old boy would have been allowed in to the “flics” to see a war movie in 1950’s England.
I certainly swallowed the WW2 propaganda hook, line and sinker. Which is why the post is so thought provoking for me. In fact all of us who grew up in 1950’s England did, vast bucket loads of propaganda. It was relentless and it really struck a cord with us young boys. Playing “english v germans” was even more popular than playing “cowboys v indians”. At least to us boys it was, the girls were nothing like as susceptible.
As we say in “Comment Policy”, ” This is not a nursery school. No one gets sent to the principal’s office. No one will ever be censored for passion, language, assertiveness, intelligence, or even stupidity or ignorance.” In other words, we who write here are on display and fair game. Never worry about being forthright in criticism.
But you are relying on what someone said or what the movies described. You were not there. Family members lie or withhold information for various reasons. How many immigrants from Germany came to the USA…What was the population of some of the cities during that time frame.
I’d rather rely on the victims of war from my own family and people I have spoken to in various countries firsthand than on someone on the internet screaming without providing any evidence “War is a Hoax. Period.”
Thank you for your comments.
After growing up with a generation of DP’s (Displaced Person) and catching glimpses from their stories of WWII, it was real.
After years, decades, pieces of events they experienced slowly came out. A general rule of thumb was if someone talked about something too much it generally didn’t happen. People tend not to talk about traumatic events.
No need to believe me, go ahead and put your hand in an open flame.
From the military, a rule of thumb was 1:20, one person in twenty can kill. The other nineteen are there to support that one person. With virtual reality combat games, the line between what is real and unreal is fuzzier so the ratio may be lower.
Counterbalancing that is how the school system is creating a class of Snowflakes. After the recent ‘school-shooting’ a major university offered their students a safe-zone room where they could cuddle a stuffed animal for an hour. I’m not making this up. As H.G. Wells Book “The Time Machine” blueprinted, there’ll be cows and people who’ll eat the cows.
Quote, “… Millennial generation is now the fattest on record—and in the United States, the Pentagon just stunningly reporting that nearly three-quarters of Americans age 17 to 24 are ineligible for the military due to obesity, other health problems, criminal backgrounds or lack of education—and of those few that are able to enter military service, has caused the US Army to drop grenade throwing as a requirement to graduate because new recruits can’t throw far enough…”.
Moral, if after believing everything is fake, good luck when the SHTF since no one will protect you (not that they were going to anyway).
Paraphrasing the illustrious Richard Nixon, “The Rich will always get by. It’s the little people who get hurt”.
FYI: Stink of War,
Quote from PF above,
“He said that Hamburg “smelt of death”, that the stench of all the dead civilian bodies was overpowering and nauseating. He said that there was nothing left of Hamburg and the all bodies were trapped in all the rubble and were decomposing.”
From Beatles song “A Day In The Life”,
“I read the news today, oh boy
Four thousand holes in Blackburn, Lancashire
And though the holes were rather small
They had to count them all
Now they know how many holes it takes to fill the Albert Hall
I’d love to turn you on”
It refers to the search crews after a bombing sticking pipes into the rumble to smell if there was a decomposed body underneath.
A friend said it was easy to follow the Allied Army’s advance towards Germany during WWII since the artillery loosened the bowels and a trail was left of the troop movement.